Right to Work Checks: Guidance for Employers
As a UK employer, you have a legal obligation to comply with prevention of illegal working legislation.
This requires you to conduct basic documentation checks on every UK-based employee to verify that any individual you employ has the requisite permission to perform the work on offer. In this Right to Work guidance, we explain how to conduct employer Right to Work checks, and the Right to Work documents that should be provided by your employees.
Conducting Right to Work checks correctly and as prescribed by law offers employers a defence in the event of an issue with the immigration or working status of any of your employees.
Importantly, as part of your recruitment and onboarding process, the checks must be carried out indiscriminately on all prospective employees, regardless of nationality, race or ethnicity. Singling out certain classes of individual could lead to complaints for unlawful discrimination.
Right to Work checks for EU workers
Although the UK has now left the EU, the rules on conducting Right to Work checks on your EU, EEA and Swiss national workers remain unchanged until 1 July 2021.
This means until 30 June 2021, EU workers can continue to use a valid passport or National Identity Card to prove their eligibility to work.
Right to Work checklist
The Right to Work provisions are set out under Sections 15 – 25 of the Immigration, Asylum and Nationality Act 2006 which came into force on 29 February 2008. By carrying out Right to Work document checks correctly employers should be able to rely on a statutory defence against alleged breaches of duties, where they can demonstrate they have taken consistent and compliant measures to ensure they are only hiring individuals with permission to work in the UK.
The Home Office guidance sets out employers’ duties in three key steps:
Right to Work Step 1 – Obtain
We advise that a copy of a future employee’s Right to Work is taken before they start working for you. This acts as a preventive measure in the event a candidate you really wish to hire requires a work permit such as a Skilled Worker visa. By verifying the individual’s status before employment is offered, it allows you to start the sponsorship process in good time. Look at your recruitment process and find where Right to Work naturally fits in your organisation, however keep in mind that leaving it for induction day could be too late.
If existing employees have limited permission to remain and work, you must ensure a follow-up check is scheduled and conducted before their current period of leave expires.
If an employer is to successfully establish a statutory excuse, they must ensure that the prospective employee presents the original documents in person. Photocopies or electronic copies will not suffice as evidence of their Right to Work.
COVID-adjusted Right to Work checks
As an emergency measure during the COVID-19 crisis, the Home Office has relaxed some of the requirements on employers to comply with the Right to Work regulations.
The changes deal specifically with the duty to verify workers’ ID in person.
Given the nationwide lockdown and closure of workplaces across the UK, the Home Office has advised that with effect from 30 March 2020, Right to Work checks can now be conducted by video link.
Under the new, temporary rules, employers can ask workers to submit digital copies of their identification documentation, by email or an appropriate app, rather than having to provide the original document in person.
The employer is then to verify the individual’s ID via a video call by asking the individual to show the original document during the call and to satisfy that the person on the call is the same person in the ID.
If verified, the employer should keep a record of the check by marking it with the following words, as prescribed by the Home Office: “adjusted check undertaken on [insert date] due to COVID-19”.
If the individual cannot provide an acceptable form of documentation, the employer is to use the Home Office’s online Employer Checking Service and await a Positive Verification Notice where the worker has valid Right to Work.
Those that require a follow-up Right to Work check using the emergency measures should be marked as: “the individual’s contract commenced on [insert date]. The prescribed right to work check was undertaken on [insert date] due to COVID-19.”
Following on from the crisis, once the Home Office has advised that the temporary measures have been lifted and the usual requirements apply (as below), employers will have 8 weeks to perform a standard Right to Work check on those employees who had been subject to the adapted verification process. Records must be retained by the employer of both checks.
The Home Office has confirmed it will not take any enforcement action against employers that conduct an adjusted check and follow this up with the retrospective check.
Retrospective checks will not be needed for individuals who have already been checked in the full and prescribed manner.
Beyond these temporary changes, employers must continue to meet their duties under the Right to Work regime.
Right to Work Step 2 – Check
Depending on the individual’s immigration status at the time of the check, there will be different requirements on the type of documents to be checked and retained.
The documents to prove the Right to Work are specified by the Home Office under List A and List B.
List A – British Citizens
- For employees who are UK passport holders, you must copy and retain the details page of their passport as proof of lawful right to work in the UK. A copy of the passport cover is no longer required.
- If a passport is not available, you must request, copy and retain their National Insurance number and name (e.g P45, P60, NI card or letter from a government agency or previous employers) and either full birth certificate or adoption certificate, or certificate or registration or naturalisation as a British citizen
What if the UK passport has expired and no replacement is available? You can still accept it as a valid right to work provided that the photo on the passport is not too dated and you are satisfied it resembles the person in front of you.
List A – European Nationals
- Valid national passport or identity card; or
- Registration certificate of document indicating permanent residence issued to an EEA national; or
- Permanent residence card issued to a family member of an EEA national
European passports, ID cards and permits are varied and sometimes it is difficult to determine what constitutes a genuine one, particularly as their look, shape and feel changes over the years. If in doubt, make use of Prado, the Council of Europe’s public register with examples of past and present European passports and other identification documents and residence permits.
List A – Others
- Holders of Indefinite Leave to Remain in possession of a Biometric Residence Card (BRP) that clearly states so, or with an endorsement in their passport which clearly shows there is no time limit on their stay in the UK; and
- Document showing NI Number and name
List B employees present additional risk for employers given the time-limited nature of their work permission, and the implications of hiring an employee whose permission to work has expired. You must stay on top this. Diarising regular checks for List B employees for example
List B – Group 1
- Are those employees (limited time to live and work in the UK) where repeat checks must take place on expiry of their leave. In order to constitute a valid Right to Work check and ensure a statutory defence for your organisation, you must hold on file a copy of their immigration status document with photo to show that the employee has the correct leave and can do the work in question. You must also hold a copy of a document showing NI number and name.
List B – Group 2
- Are those visa holder employees (limited time to live and work in the UK) where repeat checks must take place every six months.
- Alongside the usual documents, employers must also retain for this group: Positive Verification Note issued by UKVI alone or with: Certificate of Application to a non-EEA family member or EEA national / Switzerland that is less than 6 months old or; Application Registration Card permitting employment in question.
The Home Office guidance specifies certain features and characteristics which employers should look for when checking the documents. For example, if an employee has ILR, this must be evidenced with a vignette in a valid passport.
While employers are not expected to be experts in identifying fraudulent documents, you are required to reject any documents where it is ‘reasonably apparent’ that they are either fraudulent or do not belong to the person in front of you. For example:
- Ensure any photographs on the documents are the same person in front of you.
- Feel the documents. If you regularly check documents, you should get used to how authentic documents look and feel. Tilt the document and check the lighting on the holograms and MRZ.
- When checking passports, check that all pages of the passport are present.
You should also check the documents in the employee’s presence, unless you are relying on a temporary COVID-adjusted check.
Right to Work Step 3 – Retain
Record keeping is critical for Right to Work compliance. You will need to make and retain copies of the documents provided, and record the date of the check.
Copies must be legible and clear, and kept in a form that cannot be edited, such as a pdf scan or a photocopy.
A copy of the entire document should be kept, except passports, where you should copy any page with the expiry date and applicant’s details (for example nationality, date of birth and photograph) including endorsements, for example a work visa, and biometric residence permits and cards which should be copied on both sides.
The legislation requires you to retain the copies for the duration of the individual’s employment with you, plus a further two years after they leave your employment.
Also ensure you comply with the relevant data protection laws when copying and retaining the documentation. This should be detailed in a specific privacy and data protection policy which the worker is able to access.
Problems with documents
If there are problems with the individual providing the required proof of eligibility to work, you may need to contact the Home Office to request a ‘Positive Verification Notice’ to confirm that the applicant has the right to work. This would apply where:
- You believe the individual has an application or matter such as an appeal pending with the Home Office.
- The individual is a Commonwealth citizen who has been resident in the UK since before 1988.
- The individual has Application Registration Card.
- The individual has Certificate of Application less than 6 months old.
Employer Checking Service
The Employer Checking Service is a free online service from the Home Office designed to enable employers to meet their duty to conduct Right to Work checks on employees.
Employers can now use the online checking service as the single method of verifying an employee’s permission to work where the individual has:
- A biometric residence permit or
- Biometric residence card or
- Pre-settled or settled status under the EU Settlement Scheme
If an online check is not possible, the employer should continue to perform manual document checks.
The worker also has to give their permission for the employer to conduct the online check. If the worker agrees, they will need to obtain a unique ‘share code’ by completing their own online application, which the employer will need to view their details using the online system.
Employer’s guide to Right to Work checks
Right to Work checks ordinarily form part of the onboarding process and pre-employment checks.
It is good risk management practice to ensure any Right to Work processes you have in place are compliant and implemented consistently and correctly.
It is not uncommon for the central HR function to have developed a system compliant with the Right to Work legislation, but in practice, the Right to Work checks conducted locally in branches or offices by line managers and supervisors may not meet the required standard. This is a compliance risk and can result in Home Office enforcement action against the organisation as a whole.
All personnel involved in recruitment and onboarding (which may not just be HR and line managers) should be trained to perform the checks correctly and consistently. Regular spot-checks of documents should also be conducted by HR to ensure standards are being maintained and to identify any potential issues to be rectified.
Penalties for non-compliance
Failure to perform Right to Work checks correctly could result in unwanted Home Office scrutiny and serious ramifications, including:
- Civil penalty for illegal working – fine for up to £20,000 per breach
- Criminal prosecution
- Enforced debt action
- County Court judgment
- Sponsor Licence suspension or revocation
- Adverse impact on the ability to obtain future credit
- Disqualification of company directors
- Inclusion on the Home Office’s civil penalty offender list
- Bad press, reputational harm and a resulting hit on profits
- Business forced to cease trading
DavidsonMorris are specialist business immigration legal advisers, working with UK employers to ensure compliance with their duties to prevent illegal working.
If you have a question about any aspect of Right to Work checks and avoiding Home Office penalties, including the practical implications of the coronavirus adjusted Right to Work checks, contact us.
Right to Work check FAQs
How long does Right to Work check take?
Right to Work checks can vary by employer, but would usually take between 5 and 20 working days. During the COVID-19 outbreak, some employers have been hiring workers and verifying their ID on the same day, while others have sped up processing to a matter of days.
What can you use as proof of right to work?
The proof of ID will depend on which of the Home Office lists you come under, whether List A or List B.
What is a Right to Work Share code?
The share code is given to an individual to pass on to their prospective employer to conduct an online Right to Work check using the Home Office employer checking service.
Last updated: 30 December 2020